Marks and Spencer
Marks and Spencer plc (also known as M and S, colloquially known as Marks and Sparks, Marks's or, simply, Marks) is a major British retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London, with 703 stores in the United Kingdom and 361 stores spread across more than 40 countries. It specialises in the selling of clothing and luxury food products. M and S was founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds.
In 1998, it became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over £1 billion, though a few years later it plunged into a crisis which lasted for several years. In November 2009, it was announced that Marc Bolland, formerly of Morrisons, would take over as chief utive from Executive Chairman Stuart Rose in early 2010, Rose remained in the role of non-utive Chairman until he was replaced by Robert Swannell in January 2011.