The Constitution of the Russian Federation - one who has supreme legal force and direct effect and supremacy in the whole territory of the Russian Federation, the political and legal act by which a nation has established the basic principles of the society and the state, subjects of the government, the mechanism for its implementation, has established state-protected rights, freedoms and duties of citizens.
Constitution of 1993
The Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on 12 December 1993 to the results of the popular vote, conducted in accordance with the Decree of the President of Russia on October 15, 1993 № 1633 "On holding a popular vote on the draft Constitution of the Russian Federation." The term "popular vote" (not a "referendum") was used in order to circumvent the provisions applicable to the Referendum Law of the RSFSR, under which the corresponding referendum could be appointed only by the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation, according to Art. 9 of the said Act. Constitution of 1993 came into force on the day of its publication in the "Russian newspaper" - 25 December 1993.
According to Victor Sheinis, one of the authors of the Constitution of Russia, the chief researcher of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, "presidential project" of the Constitution was created under the auspices of the three, Sergey S. Alekseev, Anatoly Sobchak and Sergei Mikhailovich Shakhrai, they were the leaders of the process, but only the Constitutional Conference was attended by over 800 participants, working different lawyers. Sergei Shakhrai highlights two main authors of the Constitution - myself and Sergey Alexeev. By working together, produced a new common project of the Russian Constitution, which was subsequently passed by the President of Russia in the popular vote (in fact - to a referendum), and became the current Constitution of the Russian Federation as a result of a vote held December 12, 1993
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